I present in this page some of the historical articles I discussed in the Magic Monday Journal Club since 2009. They are annoted to help the reader in the discovery of the article to highlight the important points developped by their authors. For a compilation of the articles, replaced in their historical content, you can have a look at the  book section.

Articles of references for my textbook «Histories of Particles in the Dark Universe»


Chapter concerning the astrophysical history of dark matter hypothesis


The Milky Way and the Theory of Gases            [First real mention of «Dark Matter»]        Poincaré            (1906)

The force exerted by the stellar system in the direction perpendicular to the galactic plane and some

related problems                     [First mention of «dark matter»]                                                                Oort            (1932)

The redshift of extragalactic nebulae            [Coma cluster]                                                                Zwicky            (1933)

The redshift of extragalactic nebulae            [Original german version]                                            Zwicky            (1933)

Radio Waves from Outside the Solar System  [Galactic Radio Wave first paper]                K. Jansky                 (1933)

The rotation of the Andromeda Nebula    [First evidence of a mismatch in rotation curves]    Babcock         (1939)

Mass distribution and mass-luminosity ratio in galaxies                                                                      Schwarzschild  (1954)

Rotation and density distribution of the Andromeda nebula derived from observations of the 21-cm line

   [First measurements of gas velocities, away from the center bulge]        Van de Hulst, Raimond, Woerden  (1957)

Rotation of the Andromeda nebula from a spectroscopic survey of emission regions                                                              [first «observation» of constant velocity phenomena ]                                                                Rubin, Ford              (1969)

A numerical study of the stability of flattened galaxies: or can cold galaxies survive?      Ostriker, Peebles    (1973) 




Chapter concerning the Cosmic Microwave Background


The origin of chemical elements      [First paper on nucleosynthesis]   Alpher, Bethe, Gamow                          (1948)

The origin of elements and the formation of galaxies      [Radiation domination]                          Gamow           (1948)

The evolution of the Universe            [Computing rho matter]                                                              Gamow            (1948)

Evolution of the Universe            [First prediction of a CMB at 5K]                                    Alpher, Herman           (1948)

Remarks on the evolution of the expending Universe   [CMB prediction]      R. Alpher, R. Herman                   (1949)

Primeval Helium abundance and the primeval fireball    [rediscovering 5K]                                        Peebles         (1966)

Cosmic black body radiation                                                                                        Dicke, Peebles, Roll, Wilkinson  (1965)

A measurement of excess antenna temperature at 4080 Mc/s                           A. Penzias, R. Wilson                   (1965)



Chapter concerning the cosmological limit on an heavy neutrino bound


Primeval helium abundance and the primeval fireball [Nucleosynthesis + 11/4 (Tv)]                  Peebles            (1966)

Rest mass of muonic neutrino and cosmology              [mv < 300 eV]                         Gershtein and Zeldovich   (1966)

An Upper Limit on the Neutrino Rest Mass           [mv < 8 eV]                                        Cowsik, Mc Clelland           (1972)

Limit on the rest masses from Big Bang cosmology                                                              Szalay and Marx              (1974)  

Limits on masses and number of neutral weakly interacting particles         [mv > 2.5 GeV]              Hut                (1977)   

Cosmological Lower Bound on Heavy Neutrino Masses   [mv > 2.5 GeV]                         Lee, Weinberg               (1977)

Cosmological limits on the masses of neutral leptons  [mv< 30 eV, mv > 2.5 GeV] Visotskii,Dolgov,Zeldovich (1977)


Démonstration touchant le mouvement de la lumière [First measurement of light velocity] M. Roemer          (1676)

A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field                                                                     J.C. Maxwell               (1865)

The Vortex Ring  [First string theory article]                                                     W. Thomson [Lord Kelvin]               (1867)

On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether                    A.Michelson, E. Morley               (1887)  

The Ether and the Earth’s Atmosphere                       [Length contraction]            G.F. FitzGerald                      (1889)   

On a New Kind of Rays  [X-ray discovery, 1st Nobel prize of Physics/1901]                        W. Rontgen               (1895)

Cathode rays [discovery of the electron]                                                                                   J.J. Thomson               (1897)

On an improvement of Wien’s equation for the spectrum                                                           M. Planck                  (1900)

On the theory of the energy distribution of the normal spectrum                                           M. Planck                  (1900)

The cause and nature of Radioactivity                                                                            Rutherford; Soddy                 (1903)

Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity smaller than that of light   H.  Lorentz     (1904)

Sur la dynamique de l’électron                                                                                                          H. Poincare                 (1905)

Does the inertia of a body depends on its energy content?  [E=mc2]                                  A. Einstein                  (1905)

The Milky Way and the Theory of Gases            [First real mention of «Dark Matter»]        Poincaré            (1906)

L’agitation moléculaire et le mouvement Brownien  [Brownian movement]                             J. Perrin                  (1908)

The scattering of α and β particles by  matter and the structure of the atoms              E. Rutherford              (1911)

Magnetische Spektren der β-Strahlen des Radiums [neutrino continuum spectrum]  O. Hahn,L. Meitner    (1911)

Uber Beobachtungen der durchdringenden Strahlung bei sieben Freiballonfahrten   [Ger] V.F. Hess           (1912)

Observation of the Penetrating Radiation on Seven Ballon Flights        [1st Cosmic rays]  V.F. Hess                (1912)

On the elementary electrical charge and the avogadro constant                                                 R. Millikan             (1913)

On the constitution of Atoms and Molecules                                                                                        N. Bohr                (1913)

On the gravitational field of a mass point according to Einstein Theory                        K. Schwarzschild            (1916)

Über das Gravitationsfeld eines Massenpunktes nach der Einsteinschen Theorie     K. Schwarzschild           (1916)

A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Total Eclipse of May 29, 1919       [Proof of general relativity deflexion of light]                     A.S. Eddington                (1919)

On the Curvature of Space                                                                                                                      A. Friedman           (1922)

A quantum theory of the scattering of X-rays by light elements   [light quanta]       A.H. . Compton                 (1923)

Ondes et quanta   [wave/particle duality]                                                                                   L. de Broglie                 (1923)

Ondes et quanta   [Original handwritten manuscript]                                                              L. de Broglie                 (1923)

Planck’s law and the light quantum hypothesis  [Bose-Einstein formula]                                  S. Bose                 (1924)

On the quantum mechanics of collisions      [communication-short]                                              M. Born                (1926)

Quantum mechanics of collisions processes [Proposing probabilistic interpretation-long] M. Born                (1926)

Spinning electorns and the structure of spectra                                S. Goudsmit and G.E. Uhlenbeck                 (1926)

Experiment on the diffraction of the cathod rays  [wave/corpuscule duality]          G.P. Thomson                   (1928) 

The quantum theory of the electron   [Dirac equation/antimatter prediction]              P.A.M. Dirac                  (1928)

A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae           E. Hubble                          (1929)

Possible Existence of a Neutron   [Discovery of the neutron]                                              J. Chadwick                  (1932)

The Disintegration of Elements by High Velocity Proton   [First transmutation]     J. Cockcroft, E. Walton   (1932)

The force exerted by the stellar system in the direction[..]   [First hint of «Dark» Matter]           J. Oort        (1932)

The positive electron  [Positron discovery]                                                                            C.D. Anderson                 (1933)

Some Photographs of the Tracks of Penetrating Radiation [Positron discovery] P. Blackett, G. Occhialini (1933)

The redshift of extragalactic nebulae  [Dark Matter first paper]                                              F. Zwicky                 (1933)

Radio Waves from Outside the Solar System  [Galactic Radio Wave first paper]                K. Jansky                 (1933)

On the interactions of elementary particles    [Pion prediction]                                              H. Yukawa                  (1934)

Attempt at a Theory of β rays                                                                                                                  E. Fermi                  (1934)

Teoria simmetrica dell’ elettrone e del positrone    [Majorana fermions, it.]                       E. Majorana                 (1938)

A symmetric theory of electrons and positrons      [Majorana fermions, En.]                    E. Majorana                 (1938)

Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: A New Type of Nuclear Reaction       L. Meitner and O. Frisch          (1939)

The steady-state theory of the expanding Universe  [Big Bang alternative]                  H. Bondi, T. Gold        (1948)

The Origin of Chemical Elements  [BBN]                                                        R. Alpher, H. Bethe, G. Gamow           (1948)

The Evolution of the Universe      [Attempt of computing CMB temperature]                            G. Gamow           (1948)

Evolution of the Universe          [Exact CMB temperature prediction]                      R. Alpher, R. Herman           (1948)

Remarks on the evolution of the expending Universe   [CMB prediction]      R. Alpher, R. Herman                   (1949)

Detection of a free neutrino: a confirmation  [discovery of the neutrino]         C. Cowan, F. Reines                  (1956)

The neutrino   [discovery of the neutrino, detailed]                                                  C. Cowan, F. Reines                  (1956)

Mesonium and antimesonium [proposition of neutrino oscillation]                             B. Pontecorvo                       (1957)

Helicity of neutrinos                                                                                     M. Godhaber, L. Grodzins, A. Sunyar          (1957)

A measurement of excess antenna temperature at 4080 Mc/s                           A. Penzias, R. Wilson                   (1965)

An Upper Limit on the Neutrino Rest Mass                                                         R. Cowsik, J. McClelland                   (1972)